Semi-Supervised Learning is a class of supervised learning tasks that also make use of unlabeled data for training â€“ typically a small amount of labeled data with a large amount of unlabelled data. Semi-supervised learning falls between unsupervised learning (without any labeled training data) and supervised learning (with completely labeled training data). Many machine-learning researchers have found that unlabelled data, when used in conjunction with a small amount of labeled data, can produce considerable improvement in learning accuracy. Semi-supervised learning is also of theoretical interest in machine learning and as a model for human learning. Methods of semi-supervise learning include […]

## What is Semantic Indexing or Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI)?

Semantic Indexing or Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) is a mathematical method used to determine the relationship between terms and concepts in content. The contents of a web page are crawled by a search engine and the most common words and phrases are collated and identified as the keywords for the page. LSI looks for synonyms related to the title of your page. Latent Semantic Indexing came as a direct reaction to people trying to cheat search engines by cramming Meta keyword tags full of hundreds of keywords, Meta description full of more keywords, and page content full of nothing more […]

## What is Self-Organizing Map (SOM)?

Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is a type of artificial neural network that is trained using unsupervised learning to produce a low-dimensional (typically two-dimensional), discretized representation of the input space of the training samples, called a map, and is, therefore, a method to do dimensionality reduction. Self-organizing maps differ from other artificial neural networks as they apply competitive learning as opposed to error-correction learning (such as backpropagation with gradient descent), and in the sense that they use a neighborhood function to preserve the topological properties of the input space. This makes SOMs useful for visualizing low-dimensional views of high-dimensional data. Like most […]

## What is Selection Bias?

Selection Bias is the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed. It is sometimes referred to as the selection effect. The phrase “selection bias” most often refers to the distortion of a statistical analysis, resulting from the method of collecting samples. If the selection bias is not taken into account, then some conclusions of the study may not be accurate. There are many types of possible selection bias, including sampling bias ( systematic […]

## What is R-squared?

R-squared is a statistical measure of how close the data are to the fitted regression line. It is also known as the coefficient of determination, or the coefficient of multiple determination for multiple regression. R-squared is the percentage of the response variable variation that is explained by the model, it is always between 0 and 100%: 0% indicates that the model explains none of the variability of the response data around its mean 100% indicates that the model explains all the variability of the response data around its mean In general, the higher the R-squared, the better the model fits […]

## What is Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)?

Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is a frequently used measure of the differences between values (sample and population values) predicted by a model or an estimator and the values actually observed. The RMSD represents the sample standard deviation of the differences between predicted values and observed values. These individual differences are called residuals when the calculations are performed over the data sample that was used for estimation and are called prediction errors when computed out-of-sample. The RMSD serves to aggregate the magnitudes of the errors in predictions for various times into a single measure of predictive power. RMSD is a […]

## What is Resampling?

Resampling is any technique of generating a new sample from an existing dataset. There is a variety of methods for estimating the precision of sample statistics (medians, variances, percentiles) by using subsets of available data (jackknifing) or drawing randomly with replacement from a set of data points (bootstrapping). Exchanging labels on data points when performing significance tests (permutation tests, also called exact tests, randomization tests, or re-randomization tests) Validating models by using random subsets (bootstrapping, cross-validation). Was the above useful? Please share with others on social media. If you want to look for more information, check some free online courses […]

## What is Regularization?

What is Regularization? In Machine Learning, very often the task is to fit a model to a set of training data and use the fitted model to make predictions or classify new (out of sample) data points. Sometimes model fits the training data very well but does not well in predicting out of sample data points. A model may be too complex and overfit or too simple and underfit, either way giving poor predictions. Regularization is a way to avoid overfitting by penalizing high regression coefficients, it can be seen as a way to control the trade-off betweenÂ bias and variance […]

## What is Regression?

Regression is a statistical measure used that attempts to determine the strength of the relationship between one dependent variable and a series of other changing (independent) variables. The two basic types of regression are linear regression and multiple linear regression, although there are non-linear regression methods for more complicated data and analysis. Linear regression uses one independent variable to explain or predict the outcome of the dependent variable, while multiple regression uses two or more independent variables to predict the outcome. Regression can help predict sales for a company based on weather, previous sales, GDP growth or other conditions. Regression […]

## What is Random Sampling?

Random sampling. In this technique, each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected as the subject. The entire process of sampling is done in a single step with each subject selected independently of the other members of the population. There are many methods to proceed with simple random sampling. A sample chosen randomly is meant to be an unbiased representation of the total population. If for some reasons, the sample does not represent the population, the variation is called a sampling error. Was the above useful? Please share with others on social media. If you want […]